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Our lessons explore foods by connecting them to traditional concepts taught in secondary STEM education. Most lessons use a "sense-making" approach: essentially experiencing a food or recipe and then making sense of the process and product through use of observations, science concepts and building off of each other's ideas.

 

Most of our lessons include a hands-on lab or activity students can either do themselves or watch us do. To support and empower students in making connections and understanding the science concepts behind these foods, we design ready-to-go classroom slides, write anchor readings/articles, and produce videos. We also design student activities and worksheets that encourage further engagement and critical thinking.

To search for specific lessons, terms, or foods , use our storefront.

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Flour & Flatbread: Measurements & Precision

Explore the importance of precision and accuracy when measuring ingredients by gathering evidence in multiple activities that can be used to support a Claim in a Claim-Evidence-Reasoning response.

grades:

6

-

9

time:

2

-

3

class periods

science concepts:

measurements

Get a taste of the lesson by checking out the video!

essential questions:

- Why should bakers use a measuring scale?
- What are precision and accuracy, and why do they matter in science and in baking?
- How can you scale a recipe to make more or less?

objectives:

- Practice measuring and collecting data
- Explore precision and accuracy through measurement, data analysis, and real world applications (baking)
- Explain with evidence and reasoning why using a measuring scale is a better tool for measuring ingredients in baking

Lab Information

Learn more about how we design food-based labs and make it classroom-friendly.

Lab Times (in minutes)    *any lab over 60 minutes is split between 2 class periods

10

Lab 1:

Lab 2:

45

Lab 3:

n/a

Lab 4:

n/a

Lab 5:

n/a

Materials & Equipment:

small pan, hot plate

Other Notes:

- Only Lab 2 requires heat. Additionally, you can do these activities and meet the objectives of this lesson without frying the flatbreads (simply make the dough and do not cook).
- Lab 2 is divided over 2 class periods (15 min on day 1, 25 min on day 2). Heat is only used on day 2.

Scaling a Brownie Recipe: Volume, Units, & Heat Transfer

Explore volume, unit conversions, and the relationship between energy transfer and mass by comparing pan sizes and scaling a brownie recipe.

grades:

6

-

9

time:

4

-

6

class periods

science concepts:

measurements, dimensional analysis, density/mass/volume

Get a taste of the lesson by checking out the video!

essential questions:

- What factors need to be considered when scaling up or down a brownie recipe to fit in a different pan?
- How can I scale up or down a recipe?
- What affects the amount of time a food needs to bake for?

objectives:

- Compare different size pans by exploring ways to calculate volume and using ratios
- Learn how to scale up or down a recipe by using unit conversions and application of ratios, multiplication, and division
- Explore the relationship between transfer of thermal energy and mass

Lab Information

Learn more about how we design food-based labs and make it classroom-friendly.

Lab Times (in minutes)    *any lab over 60 minutes is split between 2 class periods

20

Lab 1:

Lab 2:

35

Lab 3:

n/a

Lab 4:

n/a

Lab 5:

n/a

Materials & Equipment:

oven, muffin tin

Other Notes:

- Both Labs 1 and 2 use heat.
- Lab 1 can also be done as a demonstration to minimize time and cost.
- A 8x8 and 9x13 pan is helpful for a demonstration (but is not involved in baking)

Air in Ice Cream: Lab Design & Density

Students will learn about density and lab design by exploring a “secret” ingredient in ice cream: air.

grades:

6

-

8

time:

3

-

5

class periods

science concepts:

density/mass/volume, measurements

Get a taste of the lesson by checking out the video!

essential questions:

- How can you use properties of mass, volume, and density to compare ice creams?
- What considerations are needed when designing an inquiry-based lab?
- How does the density of an ice cream affect how “scoopable” it is?

objectives:

- Explain what variables are important to consider when designing inquiry-based labs
- Explore the amount of air in various ice cream brands (and our own ice cream) through measurements of mass, volume, and density
- Explore and compare methods that add air into ice cream

Lab Information

Learn more about how we design food-based labs and make it classroom-friendly.

Lab Times (in minutes)    *any lab over 60 minutes is split between 2 class periods

15

Lab 1:

Lab 2:

25

Lab 3:

n/a

Lab 4:

n/a

Lab 5:

n/a

Materials & Equipment:

freezer (to store ice cream)

Other Notes:

- Lab 2 requires 2 days (or at least 90 minutes in the freezer) for the ice cream to freeze.
- A freezer is needed to store ice cream.

Flour & Chocolate Chip Cookies: Measurements & Precision

Explore measurements, precision/accuracy, conversions and scaling through a classroom-friendly chocolate chip cookie recipe.

grades:

8

-

10

time:

2

-

4

class periods

science concepts:

measurements, dimensional analysis

Get a taste of the lesson by checking out the video!

essential questions:

- Why should bakers use a measuring scale?
- What are precision and accuracy, and why do they matter in science and in baking?
- How can you scale a recipe to make more or less?

objectives:

- Explore precision and accuracy through measurement, data analysis, and real world applications (baking)
- Explain with evidence and reasoning why using a measuring scale is a better tool for measuring ingredients in baking
- Calculate and scale recipes using fractions and ratios

Lab Information

Learn more about how we design food-based labs and make it classroom-friendly.

Lab Times (in minutes)    *any lab over 60 minutes is split between 2 class periods

10

Lab 1:

Lab 2:

30

Lab 3:

n/a

Lab 4:

n/a

Lab 5:

n/a

Materials & Equipment:

for traditional cookies: oven, baking sheet

Other Notes:

- Lab 2 requires heat if you choose to make traditional cookies.
- A no-bake option cookie dough recipe is also provided.

Cherry Cola: Distillation

Explore the process of distillation and how thermal energy affects particles in a substance by distilling cherry cola in an accessible “DIY” setup.

grades:

6

-

10

time:

3

-

4

class periods

science concepts:

states of matter, phase changes, heat and energy

Get a taste of the lesson by checking out the video!

essential questions:

- What happens when we distill a substance and why?
- How can we use models to explain what occurs on a molecular level?
- What is natural flavor?

objectives:

- Understand how thermal energy affects particle motion, temperature, and the state of a substance
- Explain what distillation is and how it separates out components in a mixture
- Use models to show how molecules behave in liquids, gases, and phase changes
- Describe how thermal energy is transferred between a system and its surroundings (*HS only)

Lab Information

Learn more about how we design food-based labs and make it classroom-friendly.

Lab Times (in minutes)    *any lab over 60 minutes is split between 2 class periods

30

Lab 1:

Lab 2:

n/a

Lab 3:

n/a

Lab 4:

n/a

Lab 5:

n/a

Materials & Equipment:

hot plate, beakers

Other Notes:

- Observations in this lab do not involve any tasting of the product. Standard lab equipment (beaker, rubber stopper) is required.

Bao: Steaming & Condensation

Explore the science of steaming, condensation, and heat transfer in phase changes through bao.

grades:

8

-

10

time:

2

-

3

class periods

science concepts:

phase changes, states of matter, heat and energy

Get a taste of the lesson by checking out the video!

essential questions:

- What happens when we steam food?
- Why is steaming such an efficient way to cook food?

objectives:

- Model and describe how water particles behave in phases and in phase changes (specifically liquid, gas, evaporation and condensation)
- Explain why steaming foods is an efficient method of heat transfer
- Observe and explore differences between steaming and baking

Lab Information

Learn more about how we design food-based labs and make it classroom-friendly.

Lab Times (in minutes)    *any lab over 60 minutes is split between 2 class periods

60

Lab 1:

Lab 2:

n/a

Lab 3:

n/a

Lab 4:

n/a

Lab 5:

n/a

Materials & Equipment:

hot plate, small pan, steaming baskets, oven

Other Notes:

- Lab 1 is a 2-day lab (30 minutes for day 1, which is to make the dough; 30 minutes for day 2; which is steaming the bao).
- There must be at least 1 day in between labs for dough to proof.
- To steam bao, steaming baskets or alternative set up is needed, as well as an oven for baking (to compare cooking methods).

Dry Ice Potions: Sublimation & Phase Changes

Explore sublimation, phase changes, and the behavior of a dry ice by making a potion that you can drink!

grades:

6

-

9

time:

1

-

2

class periods

science concepts:

states of matter, phase changes

Get a taste of the lesson by checking out the video!

essential questions:

- What is dry ice and how does it behave?
- Why does dry ice create a fog in liquids?

objectives:

- Learn what dry ice is and how it behaves in different liquids through prompts and close observation
- Make a fun Halloween “potion” while learning about dry ice
- Explore how to calculate the density and mass of dry ice fog

Lab Information

Learn more about how we design food-based labs and make it classroom-friendly.

Lab Times (in minutes)    *any lab over 60 minutes is split between 2 class periods

20

Lab 1:

Lab 2:

n/a

Lab 3:

n/a

Lab 4:

n/a

Lab 5:

n/a

Materials & Equipment:

cooler to store dry ice

Other Notes:

- Dry ice can be found at some grocery stores.
- Handling of dry ice requires safety precautions, which are further explained in lesson plan.

Brown Butter Rice Krispie Treats: Heat & Physical/Chemical Changes

Explore how heat transforms butter through physical and chemical changes by making brown butter, analyzing the process in stages, and making brown butter rice krispie treats.

grades:

5

-

7

time:

4

-

6

class periods

science concepts:

chemical changes, physical changes, heat and energy

Get a taste of the lesson by checking out the video!

essential questions:

- How does heat change butter?
- What chemical and physical changes occur when we heat butter and why?
- How can we explain macro-level observations on a particulate level?

objectives:

- Closely observe the phenomenon of browning butter
- Identify and explore evidence of phase changes and chemical changes that occur due to heat when browning butter
- Visualize and model how the particles in butter change due to heat

Lab Information

Learn more about how we design food-based labs and make it classroom-friendly.

Lab Times (in minutes)    *any lab over 60 minutes is split between 2 class periods

15

Lab 1:

Lab 2:

15

Lab 3:

30

Lab 4:

n/a

Lab 5:

n/a

Materials & Equipment:

hot plate, small pan or pot

Other Notes:

- All labs require a heat source.
- Lab 2 can be done as a demonstration or skipped.

Brown Butter: Physical & Chemical Changes

Explore how heat transforms butter through multiple labs that look at how butter is made, butter’s melting point, the amount of water in butter, browning butter, and making brown butter rice krispie treats.

grades:

8

-

11

time:

3

-

7

class periods

science concepts:

chemical changes, physical changes, chemical reactions, heat and energy

Get a taste of the lesson by checking out the video!

essential questions:

- How does heat impact each component in butter and why?
- What chemical and physical changes occur when we heat butter?

objectives:

- Closely observe the phenomenon of browning butter and dissect each component in butter through various labs, readings, and activities to explain what is occurring
- Identify and explore evidence of phase changes and chemical changes that occur due to heat when browning butter

Lab Information

Learn more about how we design food-based labs and make it classroom-friendly.

Lab Times (in minutes)    *any lab over 60 minutes is split between 2 class periods

20

Lab 1:

Lab 2:

5

Lab 3:

30

Lab 4:

15

Lab 5:

30

Materials & Equipment:

hot plate, small pan or pot

Other Notes:

- All labs require a heat source, but you can skip lab 2 or 3 if needed.
- Second-hand data options to replace Lab 3 is provided.

Caramel: Heat & Chemical Changes

Explore heat, evidence of chemical changes, and the formation of a new product through the caramelization of white sugar.

grades:

8

-

11

time:

2

-

4

class periods

science concepts:

chemical changes, properties of matter, heat and energy

Get a taste of the lesson by checking out the video!

essential questions:

- How and why does heat change white sugar?
- How and why is caramelized sugar an entirely new substance compared to white sugar?

objectives:

- Observe and collect data to see how white sugar changes during caramelization
- Model and describe the molecular composition of white sugar and caramelized sugar
- Explain how thermal energy disrupts intermolecular bonds and chemical bonds

Lab Information

Learn more about how we design food-based labs and make it classroom-friendly.

Lab Times (in minutes)    *any lab over 60 minutes is split between 2 class periods

20

Lab 1:

Lab 2:

n/a

Lab 3:

n/a

Lab 4:

n/a

Lab 5:

n/a

Materials & Equipment:

hot plate, small pot

Other Notes:

- This lab requires heat.
- High temperatures are required for caramelization of sugar- safety is a must.
- This lab is not intended for eating purposes, although the product can be tasted.

Dalgona Candy: Baking Soda & Heat

**Prerequisite: This lesson builds on our Caramelization lesson, which is a recommended prerequisite.

Explore chemical reactions and how gas is produced with caramelized sugar to make Dalgona, a popular Korean candy with a honeycomb-like texture.

grades:

9

-

11

time:

2

-

3

class periods

science concepts:

chemical reactions, acids/bases

Get a taste of the lesson by checking out the video!

essential questions:

- What chemical reactions occur when making Dalgona Honeycomb Candy and why are they important to its final texture?
- Which acidic substances are produced in the caramelization of sugar and honey and why?
- What is the difference between sugar and honey and how does it impact our use of them in candy making?

objectives:

- Observe and explore why baking soda reacts with caramelized sugar and honey
- Examine and investigate the impact of honey on both the procedure and the final product in the art of candy making.
- Explain the role of multiple chemical reactions when making Dalgona candy

Lab Information

Learn more about how we design food-based labs and make it classroom-friendly.

Lab Times (in minutes)    *any lab over 60 minutes is split between 2 class periods

15

Lab 1:

Lab 2:

15

Lab 3:

n/a

Lab 4:

n/a

Lab 5:

n/a

Materials & Equipment:

hot plate, small pot

Other Notes:

- Both Labs 1 and 2 require heat.
- High temperatures are required for caramelization of sugar- safety is a must.

Color Changing Lemonade: Acidity, pH, and Particles in Liquids

Explore acidity and the behavior of particles in liquids (and its relationship to temperature) by making a color changing butterfly pea flower tea lemonade.

grades:

5

-

8

time:

3

-

5

class periods

science concepts:

solutions and mixtures, states of matter, acids and bases

Get a taste of the lesson by checking out the video!

essential questions:

- Why are some substances sour?
- How do particles behave and move in liquids and what factors affects their behavior?
- How and why do butterfly pea flowers change color?

objectives:

- Identify examples of acidic substances, measure their pH, and explain on a particulate level why they are acidic
- Model particle behavior in liquids and explore factors that change behavior, like temperature
- Observe pH through the senses, including taste and smell and pH indicators

Lab Information

Learn more about how we design food-based labs and make it classroom-friendly.

Lab Times (in minutes)    *any lab over 60 minutes is split between 2 class periods

15

Lab 1:

Lab 2:

30

Lab 3:

15

Lab 4:

n/a

Lab 5:

n/a

Materials & Equipment:

pH strips

Other Notes:

- Lab 2 is mostly inactive time as the tea steeps and can be cut short if needed.
- Some of the tea needs to steep overnight in the fridge.
- An electric tea pot or some source of hot water (does not need to be boiling) is required.

Mason Jar Ice Cream: Volume & Types of Mixtures

Explore the importance of adding and trapping air by exploring volume and methods to add air to a mixture and making a no-churn ice cream in a jar.

grades:

5

-

8

time:

2

-

3

class periods

science concepts:

states of matter, types of mixtures

Get a taste of the lesson by checking out the video!

essential questions:

- What is the best way to add air into ice cream without churning?
- Why is air an essential ingredient in ice cream?
- What other factors impact air in ice cream?

objectives:

- Explain how air is a key component to ice cream’s texture
- Explore and compare methods that add air into ice cream
- Explore how different ingredients help “trap” air

Lab Information

Learn more about how we design food-based labs and make it classroom-friendly.

Lab Times (in minutes)    *any lab over 60 minutes is split between 2 class periods

20

Lab 1:

Lab 2:

10

Lab 3:

Lab 4:

n/a

Lab 5:

n/a

Materials & Equipment:

jars, whisk, freezer (to store ice cream)

Other Notes:

- Lab 1 requires 2 days (or at least 90 minutes in the freezer) for the ice cream to freeze.
- Lab 2 is a demonstration.

Baking Soda & Kefir Flatbread: Chemical Reactions

Explore how baking soda leavens breads and requires an acidic ingredient through a simple flatbread dough.

grades:

5

-

8

time:

3

-

6

class periods

science concepts:

chemical reactions, properties of matter, conservation of matter

Get a taste of the lesson by checking out the video!

essential questions:

- What happens when baking soda “works”?
- What is needed to make baking soda “work”?
- Why do we use baking soda in recipes?

objectives:

- Observe and investigate what is needed to make baking soda react
- Explore why gas is produced and where it comes from
- Explain why baking soda is used in baking or cooking

Lab Information

Learn more about how we design food-based labs and make it classroom-friendly.

Lab Times (in minutes)    *any lab over 60 minutes is split between 2 class periods

15

Lab 1:

Lab 2:

15

Lab 3:

30

Lab 4:

10

Lab 5:

n/a

Materials & Equipment:

pH strips, hot plate + pan OR griddle OR oven

Other Notes:

- Only Lab 3, which involves making the flatbread, requires heat.
- While normally a pan/hot plate is used for cooking, you can also bake this bread successfully.
- We provide an alternative food/lab- buttermilk pancakes- which can also be used for the end of this lesson in place of the Kefir flatbread.

Baking Soda & Pancakes: Chemical Reactions & Limiting Reactants

Explore how baking soda produces gas and the importance of ratios in ingredients when looking at leavening through multiple labs, including a buttermilk pancake lab.

grades:

9

-

11

time:

5

-

7

class periods

science concepts:

chemical reactions, properties of matter, limiting reacants, conservation of matter, stoichiometry

Get a taste of the lesson by checking out the video!

essential questions:

- What happens when baking soda “works” in recipes?
- Why do ratios matter when using baking soda?

objectives:

- Investigate what is needed to make baking soda react through multiple labs
- Explore what is produced (bubbles and a neutral product) when baking soda reacts with an acidic ingredient
- Use stoichiometry to analyze the importance of amounts and ratios when using baking soda

Lab Information

Learn more about how we design food-based labs and make it classroom-friendly.

Lab Times (in minutes)    *any lab over 60 minutes is split between 2 class periods

15

Lab 1:

Lab 2:

15

Lab 3:

30

Lab 4:

10

Lab 5:

15

Materials & Equipment:

pH strips, hot plate + pan OR griddle

Other Notes:

- Only one lab (Lab 3, making pancakes) requires heat.

Amounts of Baking Soda & Pancakes: Ratios

**Prerequisite: This lesson builds on our Baking Soda and Ukrainian Flatbread lesson, which is a recommended prerequisite.

Explore how the amount of baking soda impacts the taste and texture of pancakes, investigate ratios in this chemical reaction through various mini-labs, and then determine the “ideal” amount of baking soda in a pancake recipe.

grades:

6

-

8

time:

3

-

4

class periods

science concepts:

chemical reactions, conservation of matter, limiting reacants

Get a taste of the lesson by checking out the video!

essential questions:

- How do we know how much baking soda to add to a recipe?
- What happens if we add too much or too little baking soda?

objectives:

- Gather data to investigate the quantity of products produced when different ratios of baking soda and vinegar react
- Identify evidence of leftover reactants and explain why it occurs
- Explore how chemical reactions have standard ratios of reactants and products and identify the ideal ratio of baking soda:vinegar

Lab Information

Learn more about how we design food-based labs and make it classroom-friendly.

Lab Times (in minutes)    *any lab over 60 minutes is split between 2 class periods

30

Lab 1:

Lab 2:

10

Lab 3:

10

Lab 4:

30

Lab 5:

Materials & Equipment:

pH strips, hot plate + pan OR griddle

Other Notes:

- Only Labs 1 and 4 requires heat. Pancakes can be made using a hot plate/pan or girddle.

Fizzy Color Changing Drinks: Acids & pH

Explore the science behind sourness by exploring properties of acidic ingredients (pH) and how they can produce bubbles with baking soda.

grades:

-

time:

2

-

4

class periods

science concepts:

acids and bases, chemical changes

Get a taste of the lesson by checking out the video!

essential questions:

- What makes things sour?
- Why do we use acidic substances in food and cooking?

objectives:

- Be able to identify examples of acidic substances, measure their pH, and explain on a particulate level why they are acidic
- Apply learned concepts to investigate and explain a new phenomenon
- Consider different functions of acidic substances in food and cooking

Lab Information

Learn more about how we design food-based labs and make it classroom-friendly.

Lab Times (in minutes)    *any lab over 60 minutes is split between 2 class periods

15

Lab 1:

Lab 2:

20

Lab 3:

n/a

Lab 4:

n/a

Lab 5:

n/a

Materials & Equipment:

ph strips

Other Notes:

- This is a great lesson to start with if you are new to Bite Scized!
- Lab 2 requires a tea kettle or warm water for prep.

Baking Powder & Cupcakes: Chemical Reactions with Acids and Bases

**Prerequisite: This lesson builds on our Baking Soda and Ukrainian Flatbread lesson, which is a recommended prerequisite.

Explore baking powder by investigating when and why it produces bubbles and then comparing it with baking soda through multiple trials of an easy cupcake recipe.

grades:

6

-

9

time:

3

-

4

class periods

science concepts:

chemical reactions, conservation of matter, acids and bases

Get a taste of the lesson by checking out the video!

essential questions:

- What is baking powder and how is it different from baking soda?
- How and why does baking powder produce bubbles

objectives:

- Compare and contrast baking powder and baking soda through mini labs and a cupcake recipe
- Explain what is required for baking powder to produce bubbles through evidence and reasoning

Lab Information

Learn more about how we design food-based labs and make it classroom-friendly.

Lab Times (in minutes)    *any lab over 60 minutes is split between 2 class periods

15

Lab 1:

Lab 2:

40

Lab 3:

Lab 4:

Lab 5:

Materials & Equipment:

oven, muffin tin (or hot plate + pan OR griddle if using alternative flatbread recipe instead of cupcakes)

Other Notes:

- Only Lab 2 requires heat (on day 2).
- Lab 2 can be done on 1 day, or divided into 2 days (10 minutes on day 1, 30 minutes on day 2- primarily baking time).
- You can do these activities and meet the objectives of this lesson without making the cupcakes (simply see our pictures).
- We have provided an alternative recipe/lab, which uses a flatbread recipe that can be done with hot plate/pan or griddle.

Milk Bread & Proofing: Gas Production & Temperature

Explore the process of proofing in milk bread by measuring differences in volume and density and learning about the chemical reaction of fermentation.

grades:

7

-

10

time:

3

-

4

class periods

science concepts:

chemical reactions, density/mass/volume, fermentation

Get a taste of the lesson by checking out the video!

essential questions:

- Why do we add yeast to bread?
- What is occurring as the dough sits (proofs) and why?
- How can we influence the proofing process?

objectives:

- Explore how gas is produced while dough sits and “proofs”
- Collect and analyze data to explore gas production in fermentation
- Explore ways we can change the speed of fermentation

Lab Information

Learn more about how we design food-based labs and make it classroom-friendly.

Lab Times (in minutes)    *any lab over 60 minutes is split between 2 class periods

20

Lab 1:

Lab 2:

65

Lab 3:

Lab 4:

n/a

Lab 5:

n/a

Materials & Equipment:

oven, muffin tin

Other Notes:

- Lab 1 is a demo and needs to be set up 30 minutes in advance. It is mostly inactive time.
- Lab 2 is a multi-day lab. Day 1 (20 minutes) is used to make bread dough,. Day 2 (45 minutes) is to bake it. Day 2 is mostly inactive time (either proofing or baking).
- While back to back days is not required, these days should be a maximum of 3 days apart.
- Dough needs to be pulled out of fridge ~1-2 hours before Day 2 of Lab 2.
- The dough must be stored in fridge between labs.

Engineering Baking Powder & Banh Bo Nuong: Acid-Base Neutralization Rxns

**Prerequisite: This lesson builds on our Baking Soda and Kefir Flatbread and Baking Powder and Cupcakes lessons. Both are recommended prerequisites.

Explore what substances can be used to make baking powder, design their own DIY baking powder, and then test their prototype in a classroom friendly Vietnamese honeycomb cake.

grades:

5

-

8

time:

3

-

6

class periods

science concepts:

acids and bases, chemical reactions, measurements, limiting reacants

Get a taste of the lesson by checking out the video!

essential questions:

- What substances can we use to make our own baking powder?
- What should we consider when evaluating potential substances that could be used in baking powder?
- How can we engineer and test our own baking powder?

objectives:

- Investigate properties of different substances to consider if they could be used in baking powder
- Explore differences in existing types of baking powder
- Design and test a “DIY” baking powder prototype through a variety of mini-labs

Lab Information

Learn more about how we design food-based labs and make it classroom-friendly.

Lab Times (in minutes)    *any lab over 60 minutes is split between 2 class periods

10

Lab 1:

Lab 2:

15

Lab 3:

20

Lab 4:

50

Lab 5:

Materials & Equipment:

muffin tin, oven, low equipment or require a heat source, but provide alternatives or include other labs that don't require a heat sources

Other Notes:

- The first three labs are mini-labs that do not require any heat.
- Lab 4 requires a countertop oven. Alternative recipes can also be used for this lab. They can be found in our other lesson, Baking Powder & Cupcakes. Lab preparation notes explain this in more detail.

Ricotta: Solubility & Chemical Changes

Explore the chemical reaction and formation of curds in cheese making through homemade ricotta.

grades:

6

-

9

time:

4

-

5

class periods

science concepts:

acids and bases, solubility, chemical changes

Get a taste of the lesson by checking out the video!

essential questions:

- How does milk transform into cheese?
- What happens when we add acid to milk?
- What chemical changes occur during curd formation?

objectives:

- Explore how adding an acid chemically changes milk
- Understand why casein proteins become insoluble during cheesemaking and how this leads to curd formation
- Explore factors that impact curd formation

Lab Information

Learn more about how we design food-based labs and make it classroom-friendly.

Lab Times (in minutes)    *any lab over 60 minutes is split between 2 class periods

10

Lab 1:

Lab 2:

45

Lab 3:

n/a

Lab 4:

n/a

Lab 5:

n/a

Materials & Equipment:

hot plate + pot OR microwave + jar

Other Notes:

- Lab 1 does not require heat.
- If needed, you can divide Lab 2 into 2 class periods (and let ricotta drain overnight in fridge).

Peppers & Spice: Polarity and Sensory Neurons

Explore capsaicin, peppers’ spicy molecule, and how we experience spice, extract spice, and get relief from spice.

grades:

6

-

9

time:

3

-

8

class periods

science concepts:

solubility, polarity, evolution

Get a taste of the lesson by checking out the video!

essential questions:

- What makes peppers spicy? How and why are some peppers spicier than others?
- What types of substances does “spice” like to mix with and why?
- What foods help us get relief from spice and why? What goes on in our bodies when we experience spice?

objectives:

- Identify the molecule behind spice in peppers and describe where it is found in peppers
- Describe properties of capsaicin and what types of substances it mixes with and explain why
- Explain how our body experiences spice and how we can get relief from spice

Lab Information

Learn more about how we design food-based labs and make it classroom-friendly.

Lab Times (in minutes)    *any lab over 60 minutes is split between 2 class periods

20

Lab 1:

Lab 2:

15

Lab 3:

25

Lab 4:

15

Lab 5:

20

Materials & Equipment:

hot plate, pot or pan

Other Notes:

- Only Lab 1 requires heat.
- Lab 3 requires about 20 minutes waiting time in addition to 5 minutes active time.
- Labs 4 and 5 are less essential to the lesson and can be skipped if needed.

Popping Boba: Ions, Ionic Compounds, & Double Displacement Rxns

Explore popping boba by understanding the role of ions, chemical reactions, and diffusion in making popping boba.

grades:

9

-

12

time:

3

-

6

class periods

science concepts:

ionic compounds, chemical reactions, measurements

Get a taste of the lesson by checking out the video!

essential questions:

- What chemical reaction occurs when we make popping boba and why does it occur?
- Why and how does gelling occur in popping boba?
- Why and how does the center of popping boba remain a liquid, while the outside layer is gelled?

objectives:

- Explain how a gel is formed by mixing sodium alginate and calcium chloride
- Observe & explain how time affects diffusion in a chemical reaction
- Explain how the unique texture of a single popping boba is formed through an understanding of ions, crosslinking, and diffusion

Lab Information

Learn more about how we design food-based labs and make it classroom-friendly.

Lab Times (in minutes)    *any lab over 60 minutes is split between 2 class periods

10

Lab 1:

Lab 2:

5

Lab 3:

15

Lab 4:

10

Lab 5:

55

Materials & Equipment:

a blender is helpful to prepare a solution (can be done in advance and at home)

Other Notes:

- There are many small and easy labs in this one! Most involve just using water, rather than a flavor, for the boba.
- Lab 5, which requires more time, is purely an extension and does not need to be done.

Rennet & Queso Fresco: Enzymes & Cheesemaking

Explore rennet and rennet-based curd formation by making queso fresco and comparing how milk changes when adding rennet or acid.

grades:

6

-

9

time:

3

-

4

class periods

science concepts:

engineering design, chemical changes, enzymes

Get a taste of the lesson by checking out the video!

essential questions:

- What is rennet, and how can we use it to make cheese?
- What occurs when we add rennet to milk and why?
- How is rennet different from acid in the cheesemaking process and product?

objectives:

- Explore how rennet causes coagulation and curd formation in milk
- Compare and contrast the process and product when adding rennet or acid to milk
- Explore how rennet is made and what enzymes are

Lab Information

Learn more about how we design food-based labs and make it classroom-friendly.

Lab Times (in minutes)    *any lab over 60 minutes is split between 2 class periods

50

Lab 1:

Lab 2:

30

Lab 3:

Lab 4:

Lab 5:

Materials & Equipment:

there are options to heat the milk beforehand (only needs to be lukewarm)

Other Notes:

- Both labs require a heat source, but the milk only needs to be lukewarm and could be heated by a teacher and then distributed.
- A microwave or hot plate can be used to heat milk.
- If needed, Lab 1 can be divided into 2 class periods by draining the curds overnight in a fridge.
- You will need to buy rennet for this! There are a number of specific notes and tips about types of rennet and our exact recommendations in our lab notes.

Paneer & Calcium: Ions & Ionic Bonds

**Prerequisite: This lesson builds on our Popping Boba lesson, which is a helpful prerequisite.

Explore how calcium content impacts curd formation and structure through different trials of paneer cheese.

grades:

10

-

12

time:

3

-

5

class periods

science concepts:

elasticity, stoichiometry, intermolecular forces, ionic compounds

Get a taste of the lesson by checking out the video!

essential questions:

- How and why does calcium impact curd formation and the texture of curds?
- Can we substitute calcium chloride with other substances in cheesemaking?

objectives:

- Observe how calcium impacts curd formation and coagulation
- Explain macroscopic observations with particulate models of casein micelles and calcium phosphate bridges
- Investigate the use of other substances and consider the importance of different properties including charges of ions and molar mass

Lab Information

Learn more about how we design food-based labs and make it classroom-friendly.

Lab Times (in minutes)    *any lab over 60 minutes is split between 2 class periods

60

Lab 1:

Lab 2:

20

Lab 3:

15

Lab 4:

n/a

Lab 5:

n/a

Materials & Equipment:

pot + hot plate OR jar + microwave

Other Notes:

- Labs 1 and 3 require heat.
- Lab 1 will require a solid 60 minutes class period.
- Labs 2 and 3 are to measure the firmness of the paneer and cook it.
- Lab 3, which is frying the paneer, is purely for fun/taste purposes.

Bao & Kneading: Bonds & IMFs in the Gluten Network

**This lesson can be coupled with our other lesson on Bao, which focuses on steaming.

Explore the science of kneading and gluten development through bao. An additional 2 day-extension explores steaming and heat transfer.

grades:

9

-

12

time:

4

-

6

class periods

science concepts:

bonds, phase changes, heat transfer

Get a taste of the lesson by checking out the video!

essential questions:

- Why do we knead dough?
- How does kneading change dough?
- Why is gluten important to dough texture?

objectives:

- Observe and model how the gluten network forms in dough
- Identify and explain how various bonds and attractions form in the gluten network

Lab Information

Learn more about how we design food-based labs and make it classroom-friendly.

Lab Times (in minutes)    *any lab over 60 minutes is split between 2 class periods

30

Lab 1:

Lab 2:

30

Lab 3:

n/a

Lab 4:

n/a

Lab 5:

n/a

Materials & Equipment:

steaming set up (hot plate + pot + steamer basket)

Other Notes:

- Lab 1 is a 2-day lab (30 minute for day 1, which is to make the dough; 30 minute for day 2, which is steaming the bao).
- There must be at least 1 day in between labs for dough to proof.
- To steam bao, steaming baskets or alternative set up is needed.

Kimchi: Ecosystems & Microbes

Explain why we add yeast to bread by exploring what yeast is, what occurs as dough sits over time, and completing a Focaccia-inspired “bread in a bag” lab.

grades:

6

-

8

time:

5

-

6

class periods

science concepts:

microbes, chemical reactions, fermentation

Get a taste of the lesson by checking out the video!

essential questions:

- Why do we use yeast in bread?
- What occurs as dough sits over time and why?
- What makes bread fluffy?

objectives:

- Use evidence and reasoning to explain why dough expands in volume as it sits (during proofing)
- Explain why and how yeast produces carbon dioxide through an understanding of what living organisms do and need to live
- Explore how changes in environment and resources can impact the rate of gas production

Lab Information

Learn more about how we design food-based labs and make it classroom-friendly.

Lab Times (in minutes)    *any lab over 60 minutes is split between 2 class periods

40

Lab 1:

Lab 2:

65

Lab 3:

40

Lab 4:

n/a

Lab 5:

n/a

Materials & Equipment:

muffin tin, oven

Other Notes:

- Only Lab 2 requires a heat source (for baking). Alternatively, students can take dough and bake it at home.
- Lab 1 requires ~10 minutes active time and then 30-40 minutes non-active time. It can be cut short if needed.
- Lab 2 is a multi-day lab. Day 1 (25 minutes) is to make bread dough. Day 2 (45 minutes) is to bake bread and is mostly inactive time (proofing or baking). While back to back days is not required, these days should be a maximum of 3 days apart between Day 1 and 2.
- The dough must be stored in fridge between labs.

Yeast & Bread: Organisms & Respiration

Explore microbes, cellular respiration, and environmental factors in ecosystems by making and observe kimchi over time.

grades:

6

-

8

time:

4

-

6

class periods

science concepts:

microbes, ecosystems, cycling of matter, fermentation, cellular respiration

Get a taste of the lesson by checking out the video!

essential questions:

- What is kimchi and how is it made?
- How does kimchi change over time as it sits?
- How can we influence the growth of microbes [LAB] in kimchi?

objectives:

- Observe and explain evidence of lactic acid bacteria [LAB] populations and fermentation in kimchi
- Learn how microbes [LAB] help make kimchi and preserve food
- Explain how environmental factors impact the growth of LAB populations in kimchi

Lab Information

Learn more about how we design food-based labs and make it classroom-friendly.

Lab Times (in minutes)    *any lab over 60 minutes is split between 2 class periods

30

Lab 1:

Lab 2:

5

Lab 3:

5

Lab 4:

5

Lab 5:

n/a

Materials & Equipment:

jars are helpful

Other Notes:

- Labs 2-4 are simply check-ins on the kimchi.
- Kimchi can be kept at room temperature for the first 3 days, then should be placed in fridge.

Kimchi: Lactic Acid Bacteria & Cellular Respiration

Explore microbes, cellular respiration (fermentation), and factors impacting fermentation by making kimchi.

grades:

9

-

10

time:

4

-

5

class periods

science concepts:

microbes, ecosystems, cycling of matter, cellular respiration, fermentation

Get a taste of the lesson by checking out the video!

essential questions:

- How and why does kimchi transform over time?
- How can we influence how kimchi transforms over time?

objectives:

- Identify and explain evidence of lactic acid bacteria and fermentation
- Explain the role bacteria play in the flavors and preservation of kimchi
- Explore how different environmental factors impact lactic acid bacteria populations

Lab Information

Learn more about how we design food-based labs and make it classroom-friendly.

Lab Times (in minutes)    *any lab over 60 minutes is split between 2 class periods

30

Lab 1:

Lab 2:

5

Lab 3:

5

Lab 4:

5

Lab 5:

n/a

Materials & Equipment:

jars are helpful

Other Notes:

- Labs 2-4 are simply check-ins on the kimchi.
- Kimchi can be kept at room temperature for first 3 days, then should be placed in fridge.

Apple Varieties: Inheritance, Phenotype & Genotype

Learn about different apple varieties and how apple traits are impacted by genotype and environmental factors.

grades:

6

-

8

time:

5

-

7

class periods

science concepts:

genetics, evolution

Get a taste of the lesson by checking out the video!

essential questions:

- Why are there so many apple varieties?
- What impacts the traits of an apple?
- What can scientists and breeders plan when it comes to “controlling” the traits of apples?

objectives:

- Explain how apple traits are inherited and expressed
- Explore what apple traits are studied by scientists and breeders and what we currently know about them
- Explain how and why there are many different types of apples

Lab Information

Learn more about how we design food-based labs and make it classroom-friendly.

Lab Times (in minutes)    *any lab over 60 minutes is split between 2 class periods

10

Lab 1:

Lab 2:

45

Lab 3:

n/a

Lab 4:

n/a

Lab 5:

n/a

Materials & Equipment:

pH strips/meter, refractometer

Other Notes:

- A knife and cutting board are needed for this lab. We provide kid-friendly knife suggestions. You can also cut the apples ahead of time.
- Lab 2 can be shortened to about 30 minutes if needed.

How do Bees Produce our Food?: Pollination